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Most women (83 percent) and most men (79 percent) were affiliated or enrolled with a tribe or village.
More than half of women and men (54 percent for each group) had lived within reservation boundaries or in an Alaska Native village in the past year.
This essentially provided immunity to non-Indian offenders and compromised the safety of American Indian and Alaska Native women and men.
The Violence Against Women Reauthorization Act of 2013 partially corrected this problem by providing federally recognized tribes with special domestic violence criminal jurisdiction, which allows tribes that meet certain conditions to prosecute certain cases involving non-Indian offenders.
The federal government has a "trust responsibility to assist tribal governments in safeguarding the lives of Indian women." Yet in (1978), the U. Supreme Court ruled that tribes did not have criminal jurisdiction over non-Indian perpetrators.
This meant that federally recognized tribes had no authority to criminally prosecute non-Indian offenders, even for crimes committed in Indian Country.
The majority of American Indian and Alaska Native victims have experienced violence at the hands of at least one interracial perpetrator in their lifetime — 97 percent of female victims and 90 percent of male victims.It also examined the perpetrators' race and the impact of the violence.See "Examining Violence Against American Indian and Alaska Native Women." The study used a nationally representative sample from the National Intimate Partner and Sexual Violence Survey (NISVS), with a total of 2,473 adult women and 1,505 adult men who identified themselves as American Indian or Alaska Native, either alone or in combination with another racial group.American Indian and Alaska Native women are 1.2 times as likely as non-Hispanic white-only women to have experienced violence in their lifetime and 1.7 times as likely to have experienced violence in the past year.
They are also significantly more likely to have experienced stalking and physical violence by an intimate partner in their lifetime, as well as psychological aggression by an intimate partner both in their lifetime and in the past year.
They also needed legal services (16 percent), housing services (11 percent), and advocacy services (9 percent).