3 methods of dating artefacts
Archaeologists and scientists use absolute dating methods on samples ranging from prehistoric fossils to artifacts from relatively recent history.
Chronometric techniques include radiometric dating and radio-carbon dating, which both determine the age of materials through the decay of their radioactive elements; dendrochronology, which dates events and environmental conditions by studying tree growth rings; fluorine testing, which dates bones by calculating their fluorine content; pollen analysis, which identifies the number and type of pollen in a sample to place it in the correct historical period; and thermoluminescence, which dates ceramic materials by measuring their stored energy.
The number considered to be guide artefacts has been limited to 28 types.On the other hand the limited dating accuracy of flint and pottery in surface scatters is a serious limitation in dating the surface sites.There are a number of typo-chronological diagrams for flint artefacts (Arts 1987; Fiedler 1979; Löhr 1971, 1974, 1977; Newell 1973) and pottery (Louwe Kooijmans 1976; 1980; Lüning 1967; Modderman 1970).The latter are more suitable as cultural '' than those artefacts with a more continuous presence.
Based on the largest common denominator and taking into account the position of the Meuse Valley vis-a-vis the areas studied for the chrono-typological diagrams mentioned before, we have defined 10 cultural phases for the Meuse Valley Project, of which the two Beaker phases are often combined.
This closely agrees with the fact that the seals from Indus Valley style from Ur, Kish and Tell Asmar and other sites fall within the range of 2500-1500 B. When a group or type of objects are found together under circumstances suggesting contemporanity they are said to be associated.